CloudSQL - PostgreSQL

Create an integration to manage access to PostgreSQL instances on Google Cloud SQL

Google Cloud SQL PostgreSQL is a fully managed relational database service built for the cloud. It provides a high-performance, scalable, and highly available PostgreSQL database instance without the overhead of managing infrastructure. With Google Cloud SQL, users benefit from Google Cloud's robust infrastructure, which ensures high availability, security, and scalability for their databases.

Through this integration, Apono helps you securely manage access to your Google Cloud SQL PostgreSQL database instances.

To enable Apono to manage Google Cloud SQL PostgreSQL user access, you must create a user and then configure the integration within the Apono UI.



Prerequisites

ItemDescription
Apono ConnectorOn-prem connection serving as a bridge between your Google Cloud PostgreSQL databases and Apono

Minimum Required Version: 1.4.1

Use the following steps to update an existing connector.
Cloud SQL Admin APIAPI for managing database instances with resources, such as BackupRuns, Databases, and Instances
Cloud SQL Admin Role(Cloud IAM authentication only) Google Cloud role that the Apono connector's service user must have at the instance's project or organization level
PostgreSQL InfoInformation for the database instance to be integrated:


Create a PostgreSQL user

You must create a user in your PostgreSQL instance for the Apono connector and grant that user permissions to your databases.

⚠️

You must use the admin account and password to connect to your database.


Follow these steps to create a user and grant it permissions:

  1. In the Google Cloud console, create a new user with either Built-in authentication or Cloud IAM authentication.

    Built-in Authentication
    Use apono_connector for the username.

    This authentication method grants the user the cloudsqlsuperuser role. Be sure to set a strong password for the user.

    💡

    As an alternative, you can run the following command from your Postgre client:

    CREATE USER 'apono_connector'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';


    Cloud IAM
    Use apono-connector-iam-sa@[PROJECT_ID].iam.gserviceaccount.com for the Principal.

    This authentication method does not grant the user account database privileges.

    ⚠️

    Be sure that the Apono connector GCP service account (apono-connector-iam-sa@[PROJECT_ID].iam.gserviceaccount.com) has the Cloud SQL Admin role.



  1. (Cloud IAM only) In your preferred client tool, grant cloudsqlsuperuser access to the user account.

    ALTER ROLE "<CONNECTOR_USERNAME>" WITH CREATEROLE;
    GRANT cloudsqlsuperuser TO "<CONNECTOR_USERNAME>";
    

  1. In your preferred client tool, grant the cloudsqlsuperuser role privileges on all databases except template0 and cloudsqladmin.

    This allows Apono to perform tasks that are not restricted to a single schema or object within the database, such as creating, altering, and dropping database objects.

    DO $$
    DECLARE
      database_name text;
    BEGIN
      FOR database_name IN (SELECT datname FROM pg_database WHERE datname != 'template0' AND datname != 'cloudsqladmin') LOOP
        EXECUTE 'GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON DATABASE ' || quote_ident(database_name) || ' TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
      END LOOP;
    END; $$
    

  1. For each database to be managed through Apono, connect to the database and grant cloudsqlsuperuser privileges on all objects in the schemas.

    This allows Apono to perform tasks that are restricted to schemas within the database, such as modifying table structures, creating new sequences, or altering functions.

    DO $$
    DECLARE
      schema text;
    BEGIN
      FOR schema IN (SELECT schema_name FROM information_schema.schemata WHERE schema_name NOT LIKE 'pg_%' AND schema_name != 'information_schema' AND schema_name != 'cron') LOOP
        EXECUTE 'GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON SCHEMA ' || quote_ident(schema) || ' TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
        EXECUTE 'GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA ' || quote_ident(schema) || ' TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
        EXECUTE 'GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON ALL SEQUENCES IN SCHEMA ' || quote_ident(schema) || ' TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
        EXECUTE 'GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON ALL FUNCTIONS IN SCHEMA ' || quote_ident(schema) || ' TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
      END LOOP;
      EXECUTE 'ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON TABLES TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
      EXECUTE 'ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON SEQUENCES TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
      EXECUTE 'ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON FUNCTIONS TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
      EXECUTE 'ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON SCHEMAS TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
    END; $$
    

  1. Connect to the template1 database and grant cloudsqlsuperuser privileges on all objects in the schemas.

    For any new databases created in the future, this allows Apono to perform tasks that are restricted to schemas within the database, such as modifying table structures, creating new sequences, or altering functions.

    DO $$
    DECLARE
      schema text;
    BEGIN
      FOR schema IN (SELECT schema_name FROM information_schema.schemata WHERE schema_name NOT LIKE 'pg_%' AND schema_name != 'information_schema' AND schema_name != 'cron') LOOP
        EXECUTE 'GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON SCHEMA ' || quote_ident(schema) || ' TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
        EXECUTE 'GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA ' || quote_ident(schema) || ' TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
        EXECUTE 'GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON ALL SEQUENCES IN SCHEMA ' || quote_ident(schema) || ' TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
        EXECUTE 'GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON ALL FUNCTIONS IN SCHEMA ' || quote_ident(schema) || ' TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
      END LOOP;
      EXECUTE 'ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON TABLES TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
      EXECUTE 'ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON SEQUENCES TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
      EXECUTE 'ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON FUNCTIONS TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
      EXECUTE 'ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON SCHEMAS TO cloudsqlsuperuser WITH GRANT OPTION';
    END; $$
    

  1. (Built-in authentication only) Create a secret with the credentials from step 1.

    ℹ️

    When using Cloud IAM authentication, the service account and its permissions are managed through Google Cloud IAM roles and policies. The service account is used to authenticate to the Cloud SQL instance.

    A secret does not need to be created.



Integrate Google Cloud SQL - PostgreSQL

Follow these steps to complete the integration:

  1. On the Catalog tab, click Google Cloud SQL - PostgreSQL. The Connect Integration page appears.
  2. Under Discovery, click one or more resource types and cloud services to sync with Apono.

    ℹ️

    Apono automatically discovers and syncs all the instances in the environment. After syncing, you can manage Access Flows to these resources.

  3. Click Next. The Apono connector section expands.
  4. From the dropdown menu, select a connector.

    💡

    If the desired connector is not listed, click + Add new connector and follow the instructions for creating a GCP connector.

  5. Click Next. The Integration Config section expands.
  6. Define the Integration Config settings.
    Setting Description
    Integration Name Unique, alphanumeric, user-friendly name used to identify this integration when constructing an access flow
    Auth Type Authorization type for the MySQL service account user
    Option Description
    IAM Auth Cloud IAM authentication
    User / Password Built-in authentication
    Project ID ID of the project where the PostgreSQL instance is deployed
    Region Location where the PostgreSQL instance is deployed
    Instance ID ID of the PostgreSQL instance
    Instance ID User Override (Optional) Allows overriding the instance ID for the user
    Database Name Name of the database to integrate

    By default, Apono sets this value to postgre.
    SSL Mode (Optionl) Mode of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption used to secure the connection with the SQL database server
    Option Description
    require An SSL-encrypted connection must be used.
    allow An SSL-encrypted or unencrypted connection is used. If an SSL encrypted connection is unavailable, the unencrypted connection is used.
    disable An unencrypted connection is used.
    prefer An SSL encrypted connection is attempted. If the encrypted connection is unavailable, the unencrypted connection is used.
    verify-ca An SSL-encrypted connection must be used and a server certification verification against the provided CA certificates must pass.
    verify-full An SSL-encrypted connection must be used and a server certification verification against the provided CA certificates must pass.

    Additionally, the server hostname is checked against the certificate's names.

  1. Click Next. The Secret Store section expands.
  2. (User/Password only) Associate the secret or credentials:
  3. Click Next. The Get more with Apono section expands.
  4. Define the Get more with Apono settings.
    Setting Description
    Credential Rotation (Optional) Number of days after which the database credentials must be rotated
    Custom Access Details (Optional) Instructions explaining how to access this integration's resources
    Integration Owner (Optional) Fallback approver if no resource owner is found

    Follow these steps to define one or several integration owners:
    1. From the Attribute dropdown menu, select User or Group under the relevant identity provider (IdP) platform.
    2. From the Value dropdown menu, select one or multiple users or groups.

    NOTE: When Resource Owner is defined, an Integration Owner must be defined.
    Resource Owner (Optional) Group or role responsible for managing access approvals or rejections for the resource

    Follow these steps to define one or several resource owners:
    1. Enter a Key name. This value is the name of the tag created in your cloud environment.

    2. From the Attribute dropdown menu, select an attribute under the IdP platform to which the key name is associated.

      Apono will use the value associated with the key (tag) to identify the resource owner. When you update the membership of the group or role in your IdP platform, this change is also reflected in Apono.

    NOTE: When this setting is defined, an Integration Owner must also be defined.

  1. Click Confirm.

Now that you have completed this integration, you can create access flows that grant permission to your Google Cloud SQL PostgreSQL instance.